The world had seen many transformations during the Abbasid Caliphate or Abbasid Dynasty. Their achievements of Abbasid Dynasty are in many different fields like education, science, medicine, and so on.
But, before discussing their achievements, we should know about the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third caliphate, succeeding the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib(566-653 CE) was the founder of this dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate first centered its government in Kufa(modern Iraq). In 762, the caliph Al-Mansur founded a city near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon, called Baghdad. Soon, Baghdad became the center of science, culture, philosophy, and invention. And that is why it is called the Golden Age of Islam.
Achievements of the Abbasid Dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty had many achievements in trade, military, science, astronomy, medicine, and so on.
Maritime trade through the Persian Gulf increase, trading with Madagascar, China, Korea, and Japan. There was a class of businessmen fulfilling the demand for luxurious goods.
Many Muslim merchants employed ports in Basra, Red Sea, Aden, and Bandar Siraf to trade with India and South East Asia. Land routes were also used to trade in Central Asia.
In Baghdad, many Abbasid military leaders were of Arab descent. In Khorasan, the standing army was mainly Arab. But, the unit among the soldiers was their power. When Abu Muslim recruited officers along the silk road, he registered them based not on their tribal affiliation but their current places of residence.
Abbasids never maintained a large number of the regular army, but they could recruit soldiers in a short time.
They had an array of siege equipment ranging from catapults, mangonels, battering rams, ladders, grappling irons, and hooks.
This period saw the recovery of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric, and astronomical knowledge. These were enhanced by Persian scientists Al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur.
Jabir ibn Hayyan was also from the Abbasid Dynasty who is considered the Father of Chemistry. Algebra was notably developed by Persian scientist Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. The term algorism and algorithm are derived from the name of al-Khwarizmi. He introduced the Arabic numerals and Hindu-Arabic numeral system beyond the Indian subcontinent.
Ibn al-Haytham developed a scientific method and explained in “Book of Optics”. For his works in the field of optics, he was called the “Father of Optics”.
During the 9th century, Baghdad had over 800 doctors. They have a great understanding of anatomy and different diseases. They made a clinical distinction between measles and smallpox.
Famous Persian scientist Ibn Sina accumulated the knowledge of different scientists and created encyclopedias – The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing.
Al-Battani advanced the Astronomy during this period. He improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth’s axis.
The technology of Papermaking and Gunpowder was transmitted from China to the Abbasids. They have an advanced system of irrigation such as windmills. Windmills were one of the inventions by Abbasids.
They had highly developed navigation science. They used advanced tools like a sextant. They were able to sail across the ocean rather than sailing along the coast.
Abbasid Dynasty has a plethora of achievements. They had brought many advanced technologies. Works of scientists of Abbasid Caliphates also helpful in the advancement of mathematics, optics, and so on.
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