History of Jaipur starts with the foundation of the city by King of Amer Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh on 18 November 1727 who ruled from 1699 to 1742. He prepared to shift his capital from Amer, 11 kilometers (7 mi) to Jaipur to support the growing population and increasing scarcity of water.
Jai Singh referred to several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu Shastra and Shilpa Shastra.
In 1726, construction of the city began and took four years to complete the major roads, offices, and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which included the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge walls were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.
Why Jaipur is called Pink City?
The Prince of Wales and Queen Victoria were to pay a visit to India in 1876. To bring the essence of welcoming words “Padharo Mahrey Desh” Maharaja Ram Singh got the city colored with Pink, which signifies hospitality.
Also known as The Palace of Winds. Hawa Mahal represents the perfection of mind and beauty. It was built by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh who was known for his brilliance. It was an important architecture in the History of Jaipur
In the Royal Families, Purdah System was followed, abiding which the females weren’t allowed to socialize with strangers. To keep the women of Royal Families connected with the outer world, Hawa Mahal was built. This allowed them to spectate several processions and events through the windows. In the form of the construction of this heritage building, a step towards the social upliftment of women was taken by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh.
Birthplace to Princess of Amber Jodha Bai, the Fort was built by Raja Man Singh during 967 CE. The construction, renovation and expansion of the Fort were spread over 100 – 150 years. Jai Man Singh I took the responsibility of expansion of the fort over Aravalli Range.
Meaning ‘An Abode to Tigers’, Nahargarh Fort was built by Maharaja Jai Singh II in 1734. The methods of its construction are obtained from Indo-European architecture.
Earlier, the palace was built as a place of retreat but in the later periods, the Fort saw important treaties with Marathas. Moreover, during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, Sawai Ram Singh shifted the Europeans and the British Resident’s wife to this Fort to protect from the outer riots.
Stand anywhere in the city of Amber, and you will quickly spot the endless walls of this fort. It was a protective structure built to protect the Amber Fort in 1726 by Sawai Jai Singh.
The fort was the major cannon foundry during the Mughal Dynasty because of an abundance of iron ore mines in its domain. The huge water tank which was used for storing 6 million gallons of water had chambers beneath which were used to hide the loot. Also, the fort is a home to the world’s largest cannon, Jaivana cannon.
The Water Palace is located quite away from the noises of the city in the middle of Sagar Lake. In the ancient times, it served as a hunting lodge for Maharajas.
With 5 floors built in it, only the top floor remains above water level. It is a treat to one’s eye when looked upon during the night time. The Jal Mahal stands as another enthralling example of the different thinking of city’s rulers.
Built between 1729 and 1732, the City Palace is soon home to the Royal Family of Jaipur. The palace offering to its elegance includes of Chandra Mahal and Mubrak Mahal.
It has a mixture of gardens, courtyards, temples and many other richly built buildings. One-seventh of the Jaipur city comes under the geographical influence of the majestic City Palace.
Man Singh II was the last Maharaja of Jaipur to rule from the Chandra Palace as after that Jaipur got merged with the Indian Union. Also, today the Palace has not only become a place to see historical valour but also one of the best options for destination weddings in India.
Jantar Mantar is the biggest solar observatory among the 5 which was built by Sawai Jai Singh. The heritage performance contains the wisdom held by the former Rajputana King. It contains of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments. The Giant Sundial or The Samrat Yantra located at the height of 27 m was used to predict seasons and movement of planets.
>> Read about Udai Singh II – Maharana of Mewar