Reign of Mahmud Shah Tughlaq
There is a relentless struggle during his reign and the suffering reached its peak. By the time of Mahmud Tughlaq, the provinces of South India, Bengal, Khandesh, Gujarat, Malwa, Rajasthan, Bundelkhand, etc. had gone independent from Delhi Sultanate.
During the time of Mahmud Tughlaq, a eunuch(Bisexual) named Malik Sarwar took the title of ‘Malik-us-Sarkh’ (Purvadhipati) from the Sultan and established an independent state in Jaunpur. The rule of Mahmud Tughlaq was confined at this time from Delhi to Palam (a few nearby districts).
War of succession with Nusrat Shah
Nasiruddin Mahmud was a son of sultan Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah III, who ruled from 31 August 1390 to 20 January 1394. After his death, his elder son Ala ud-Din Sikandar Shah became sultan. But on 8 March 1394, he soon died of illness, and his younger brother Nasiruddin Mahmud succeeded him.
The succession was challenged by his relative Nusrat Shah(Nasrat Khan). It triggered a war of succession that lasted for three years until 1397.
During these 3 years, Nasiruddin Mahmud ruled from the city of Delhi, while Nusrat Shah ruled from Firozabad.
“For about three years, from 1394 to 1397… Sultan Mahmud, a grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, was recognized as king in Old Delhi, while his relative Nusrat Shah, claimed similar rank in Firuzabad.”
Invasion of Timur
During the reign of Nasiruddin Mahmud in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. Being limp with one leg, he was named ‘Timur Lung’. Fearing the invasion of Timur, both Sultans fled the capital. After staying in Delhi for 15 days, Timur went back and appointed Khizr Khan as the Governor of his conquered territories.
He took away a large haul with him from Delhi and surrounded the area. Following the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty came to an end.