The Treaty of Alinagar was signed on 9th February 1757. It was a treaty between Robert Clive of the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal, Mirza Muhammad Siraj Ud Daula. Alinagar was the short-lived name, given by Nawab to Calcutta after he captured it.
Reason Behind the Treaty of Alinagar
The nawab fired the English settlement at Calcutta (18-20 June 1756) and threw them out of the city when they refused to rectify his certain grievances against them.
English asked for help from Madras. The support from Madras arrived under the leadership of Robert Clive and Charles Watson and recaptured the Calcutta.
The nawab advanced to Calcutta. But, nawab retreated when the English attacked him in the early dawn. He was asked to sign the treaty. With the advice of his principal advisers and minister, he signed it unwillingly.
Provisions of the Treaty
The main provisions of the treaty were:
- All the privileges sanctioned to English by the Farrukh Siyar‘s Farman of 1717 will be allowed by Nawab
- Nawab will not disallow the English to fortify Calcutta
- All the English good passing through Bengal, with the Company’s Dastak, will be exempted from customs duties.
- The English will have the right to issue money in Calcutta.
The terms of the treaty were pleasing to the English. On 22nd February 1757, Clive wrote to the Select Committee that the terms of the treaty were “both honorable and advantageous to the Company”.
On the other hand, the treaty was humiliating for Siraj Ud Daula. He accepted it, not scared of English arms, but of the threat of an approaching Afgan invasion under Ahmad Shah Abdali.
Still, the treaty did not last long, mainly because the English did not adhere to the terms of the treaty. It led to the Battle of Plassey on 23rd June 1757.
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