The Treaty of Constantinople was the product of the London Conference of 1832 started in February 1832 with the support of the Great Powers (Britain, France, and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
Reason for Treaty of Constantinople
The factors which formed the treaty included the refusal of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to assume the Greek throne. Leopold was not satisfied with the Aspropotamos–Spercheios line. It replaced the more favorable Arta–Volos line held by the Great Powers earlier.
The final settlement was for the frontiers of the new kingdom was required. The retreat of Leopold as a candidate for the throne of Greece and the July Revolution in France delayed the final settlement. The final settlement was delayed till a new government was formed in London.
Lord Palmerston, who took over as British Foreign Secretary, agreed to the Arta-Volos borderline. However, the secret note on Crete, which the Bavarian agent communicated to the Courts of Britain, France, and Russia, bore no fruit.
Terms of Treaty
On 7 May 1832, the protocol was signed between Bavaria and the protecting Powers, and dealing with how the Regency was to be maintained until Otto attained his majority (while also concluding the second Greek loan, for a sum of £2,400,000 sterling). The protocol defined Greece as an independent kingdom, with the Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier.
The Ottoman Empire was reimbursed in the sum of 40,000,000 piastres for the loss of the territory.
The borders of the Kingdom were restated in the London Protocol of 30 August 1832 signed by the Great Powers. It approved the terms of the Constantinople Arrangement in connection with the border between Greece and the Ottoman Empire and marked the end of the Greek War of Independence building modern Greece as an independent state free of the Ottoman Empire.